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Beyond Conventional Considerations: Newer Devices Used in Blood Pressure Measurement and Management

  • Raymond R. Townsend
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Raymond R. Townsend, MD, Renal Division, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, 122 Founders Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
    Affiliations
    Section of Clinical Pharmacology and Hypertension, Division of Nephrology, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, VA; and Renal Division, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
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  • Domenic A. Sica
    Affiliations
    Section of Clinical Pharmacology and Hypertension, Division of Nephrology, Virginia Commonwealth University Health System, Richmond, VA; and Renal Division, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
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      Several noninvasive devices are now available to assess blood vessel structure and function and have been shown in longitudinal cohort studies to provide additional cardiovascular event prediction over that obtained by conventional brachial blood pressure (BP) measurements. Among these newer measurements are estimates of vascular stiffness (as determined by the pulse wave velocity in the aorta) and measures of pulse wave reflection. Pulse wave velocity, in particular, has been well studied in end-stage kidney (ESKD) populations where it predicts cardiovascular events and death independently of standard BP. In addition, there are minimum 3 devices, either marketed or used in clinical trials, that are useful in some clinical situations as an adjunct to drug therapy for managing high BP. This review will focus on the roles of these new technologies in evaluating and managing high BP, emphasizing the CKD/ESKD patient where possible, although data are limited in the kidney disease population when it comes to managing BP with these novel device approaches.

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