Dietary Patterns, Calories, and Kidney Disease

  • Holly Kramer
    Address correspondence to Holly Kramer, MD MPH, Loyola Medical Center, Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology and Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, 2160 First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153.
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology and Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Loyola Medical Center, Maywood, IL
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      Specific nutritional factors that mediate obesity or CKD remain very difficult to quantify in any population. That being said, several macronutrients, including protein intake, have been examined as risk factors for CKD progression. Given the correlation of micro- and macronutrients within a particular diet and the consistency of an individual's dietary habits over time for most individuals, dietary patterns may have a greater impact on CKD risk and progression. This review focuses on dietary patterns and their association with CKD. To date, studies examining dietary patterns and CKD risk remain very limited, and more studies are needed. However, the follow-up period may need to be fairly long to detect any association. Caloric intake itself may also affect CKD risk. This may be due to the influence of caloric intake on sirtuin1, which modulates adiponectin gene expression and nitric oxide bioavailability.

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