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Management of Hypertension in CKD: Beyond the Guidelines

  • Eric Judd
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Eric Judd, MD, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, ZRB 510, 1530 3rd Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007.
    Affiliations
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
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  • David A. Calhoun
    Affiliations
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
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      Hypertension (HTN) and CKD are closely associated with an intermingled cause and effect relationship. Blood pressure (BP) typically rises with declines in kidney function, and sustained elevations in BP hasten progression of kidney disease. This review addresses current management issues in HTN in patients with CKD including altered circadian rhythm of BP, timing of antihypertensive medication dosing, BP targets, diagnostic challenges in evaluating secondary forms of HTN, and the role of salt restriction in CKD. HTN in patients with CKD is often accompanied by a decrease in the kidney's ability to remove salt. Addressing this salt sensitivity is critical for the management of HTN in CKD. In addition to the well-established use of an ACEI or angiotensin receptor blocker, dietary salt restriction and appropriate diuretic therapy make up the mainstay of HTN treatment in patients with CKD. Bedtime dosing of antihypertensive medications can restore nocturnal dips in BP, and future clinical practice guidelines may recommend bedtime dosing of 1 or more antihypertensive medications in patients with CKD.

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