Advertisement

The New Epidemiology of Nephrolithiasis

      Historically nephrolithiasis was considered a disease of dehydration and abnormal urine composition. However, over the past several decades, much has been learned about the epidemiology of this disease and its relation to patient demographic characteristics and common systemic diseases. Here we review the latest epidemiologic studies in the field.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Eknoyan G.
        • De Santo N.G.
        The enlightenment kidney-nephrology in and about the eighteenth century.
        Semin Dial. 2012; 25: 74-81
        • Scales Jr., C.D.
        • Smith A.C.
        • Hanley J.M.
        • Saigal C.S.
        • Urologic Diseases in America Project
        Prevalence of kidney stones in the United States.
        Eur Urol. 2012; 62: 160-165
        • Stamatelou K.K.
        • Francis M.E.
        • Jones C.A.
        • Nyberg L.M.
        • Curhan G.C.
        Time trends in reported prevalence of kidney stones in the United States: 1976-1994.
        Kidney Int. 2003; 63: 1817-1823
        • Curhan G.C.
        Epidemiology of stone disease.
        Urol Clin North Am. 2007; 34: 287-293
        • Pearle M.S.
        • Calhoun E.A.
        • Curhan G.C.
        Urologic Diseases of America Project. Urologic diseases in America project: urolithiasis.
        J Urol. 2005; 173: 848-857
        • Saigal C.S.
        • Joyce G.
        • Timilsina A.R.
        • Urologic Diseases in America Project
        Direct and indirect costs of nephrolithiasis in an employed population: opportunity for disease management?.
        Kidney Int. 2005; 68: 1808-1814
        • Johnson C.M.
        • Wilson D.M.
        • O'Fallon W.M.
        • Malek R.S.
        • Kurland L.T.
        Renal stone epidemiology: a 25-year study in Rochester, Minnesota.
        Kidney Int. 1979; 16: 624-631
        • Lieske J.C.
        • Pena de la Vega L.S.
        • Slezak J.M.
        • et al.
        Renal stone epidemiology in Rochester, Minnesota: an update.
        Kidney Int. 2006; 69: 760-764
        • Hesse A.
        • Brandle E.
        • Wilbert D.
        • Kohrmann K.U.
        • Alken P.
        Study on the prevalence and incidence of urolithiasis in Germany comparing the years 1979 vs. 2000.
        Eur Urol. 2003; 44: 709-713
        • Trinchieri A.
        • Coppi F.
        • Montanari E.
        • Del Nero A.
        • Zanetti G.
        • Pisani E.
        Increase in the prevalence of symptomatic upper urinary tract stones during the last ten years.
        Eur Urol. 2000; 37: 23-25
        • Yasui T.
        • Iguchi M.
        • Suzuki S.
        • Kohri K.
        Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of urolithiasis in Japan: national trends between 1965 and 2005.
        Urology. 2008; 71: 209-213
        • Yoshida O.
        • Terai A.
        • Ohkawa T.
        • Okada Y.
        National trend of the incidence of urolithiasis in Japan from 1965 to 1995.
        Kidney Int. 1999; 56: 1899-1904
        • Scales Jr., C.D.
        • Curtis L.H.
        • Norris R.D.
        • et al.
        Changing gender prevalence of stone disease.
        J Urol. 2007; 177: 979-982
        • Strope S.A.
        • Wolf Jr., J.S.
        • Hollenbeck B.K.
        Changes in gender distribution of urinary stone disease.
        Urology. 2010; 75 (546.e1): 543-546
        • Ljunghall S.
        • Danielson B.G.
        A prospective study of renal stone recurrences.
        Br J Urol. 1984; 56: 122-124
        • Trinchieri A.
        • Ostini F.
        • Nespoli R.
        • Rovera F.
        • Montanari E.
        • Zanetti G.
        A prospective study of recurrence rate and risk factors for recurrence after a first renal stone.
        J Urol. 1999; 162: 27-30
        • Rule A.D.
        • Lieske J.C.
        • Li X.
        • Melton 3rd, L.J.
        • Krambeck A.E.
        • Bergstralh E.J.
        The ROKS nomogram for predicting a second symptomatic stone episode.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014; 25: 2878-2886
        • Daudon M.
        • Donsimoni R.
        • Hennequin C.
        • et al.
        Sex- and age-related composition of 10 617 calculi analyzed by infrared spectroscopy.
        Urol Res. 1995; 23: 319-326
        • Knoll T.
        • Schubert A.B.
        • Fahlenkamp D.
        • Leusmann D.B.
        • Wendt-Nordahl G.
        • Schubert G.
        Urolithiasis through the ages: data on more than 200,000 urinary stone analyses.
        J Urol. 2011; 185: 1304-1311
        • Moses R.
        • Pais Jr., V.M.
        • Ursiny M.
        • Prien Jr., E.L.
        • Miller N.
        • Eisner B.H.
        Changes in stone composition over two decades: evaluation of over 10,000 stone analyses.
        Urolithiasis. 2015; 43: 135-139
        • Soucie J.M.
        • Thun M.J.
        • Coates R.J.
        • McClellan W.
        • Austin H.
        Demographic and geographic variability of kidney stones in the United States.
        Kidney Int. 1994; 46: 893-899
        • Tasian G.E.
        • Pulido J.E.
        • Gasparrini A.
        • et al.
        Daily mean temperature and clinical kidney stone presentation in five U.S. metropolitan areas: a time-series analysis.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2014; 122: 1081-1087
        • Brikowski T.H.
        • Lotan Y.
        • Pearle M.S.
        Climate-related increase in the prevalence of urolithiasis in the United States.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008; 105: 9841-9846
        • Taylor E.N.
        • Curhan G.C.
        Dietary calcium from dairy and nondairy sources, and risk of symptomatic kidney stones.
        J Urol. 2013; 190: 1255-1259
        • Curhan G.C.
        • Willett W.C.
        • Knight E.L.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in younger women: Nurses' Health Study II.
        Arch Intern Med. 2004; 164: 885-891
        • Sorensen M.D.
        • Hsi R.S.
        • Chi T.
        • et al.
        Dietary intake of fiber, fruit and vegetables decreases the risk of incident kidney stones in women: a Women's Health Initiative report.
        J Urol. 2014; 192: 1694-1699
        • Ferraro P.M.
        • Taylor E.N.
        • Gambaro G.
        • Curhan G.C.
        Soda and other beverages and the risk of kidney stones.
        Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013; 8: 1389-1395
        • Taylor E.N.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • Curhan G.C.
        Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in men: new insights after 14 years of follow-up.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004; 15: 3225-3232
        • Taylor E.N.
        • Curhan G.C.
        Fructose consumption and the risk of kidney stones.
        Kidney Int. 2008; 73: 207-212
        • Curhan G.C.
        • Willett W.C.
        • Speizer F.E.
        • Spiegelman D.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        Comparison of dietary calcium with supplemental calcium and other nutrients as factors affecting the risk for kidney stones in women.
        Ann Intern Med. 1997; 126: 497-504
        • Taylor E.N.
        • Curhan G.C.
        Determinants of 24-hour urinary oxalate excretion.
        Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008; 3: 1453-1460
        • Taylor E.N.
        • Curhan G.C.
        Oxalate intake and the risk for nephrolithiasis.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007; 18: 2198-2204
        • Sakhaee K.
        Nephrolithiasis as a systemic disorder.
        Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2008; 17: 304-309
        • West B.
        • Luke A.
        • Durazo-Arvizu R.A.
        • Cao G.
        • Shoham D.
        • Kramer H.
        Metabolic syndrome and self-reported history of kidney stones: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 2008; 51: 741-747
        • Taylor E.N.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • Curhan G.C.
        Obesity, weight gain, and the risk of kidney stones.
        JAMA. 2005; 293: 455-462
        • Taylor E.N.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • Curhan G.C.
        Diabetes mellitus and the risk of nephrolithiasis.
        Kidney Int. 2005; 68: 1230-1235
        • Cameron M.A.
        • Maalouf N.M.
        • Adams-Huet B.
        • Moe O.W.
        • Sakhaee K.
        Urine composition in type 2 diabetes: predisposition to uric acid nephrolithiasis.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006; 17: 1422-1428
        • Daudon M.
        • Traxer O.
        • Conort P.
        • Lacour B.
        • Jungers P.
        Type 2 diabetes increases the risk for uric acid stones.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006; 17: 2026-2033
        • Eisner B.H.
        • Porten S.P.
        • Bechis S.K.
        • Stoller M.L.
        Diabetic kidney stone formers excrete more oxalate and have lower urine pH than nondiabetic stone formers.
        J Urol. 2010; 183: 2244-2248
        • Weinberg A.E.
        • Patel C.J.
        • Chertow G.M.
        • Leppert J.T.
        Diabetic severity and risk of kidney stone disease.
        Eur Urol. 2014; 65: 242-247
        • Madore F.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • Willett W.C.
        • Speizer F.E.
        • Curhan G.C.
        Nephrolithiasis and risk of hypertension in women.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 1998; 32: 802-807
        • Madore F.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • Rimm E.B.
        • Curhan G.C.
        Nephrolithiasis and risk of hypertension.
        Am J Hypertens. 1998; 11: 46-53
        • Reiner A.P.
        • Kahn A.
        • Eisner B.H.
        • et al.
        Kidney stones and subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults: the CARDIA study.
        J Urol. 2011; 185: 920-925
        • Rule A.D.
        • Roger V.L.
        • Melton 3rd, L.J.
        • et al.
        Kidney stones associate with increased risk for myocardial infarction.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010; 21: 1641-1644
        • Rule A.D.
        • Bergstralh E.J.
        • Melton 3rd, L.J.
        • Li X.
        • Weaver A.L.
        • Lieske J.C.
        Kidney stones and the risk for chronic kidney disease.
        Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009; 4: 804-811
        • El-Zoghby Z.M.
        • Lieske J.C.
        • Foley R.N.
        • et al.
        Urolithiasis and the risk of ESRD.
        Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012; 7: 1409-1415
        • Alexander R.T.
        • Hemmelgarn B.R.
        • Wiebe N.
        • et al.
        Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study.
        BMJ. 2012; 345: e5287
        • Gillen D.L.
        • Worcester E.M.
        • Coe F.L.
        Decreased renal function among adults with a history of nephrolithiasis: a study of NHANES III.
        Kidney Int. 2005; 67: 685-690
        • Shoag J.
        • Halpern J.
        • Goldfarb D.S.
        • Eisner B.H.
        Risk of chronic and end stage kidney disease in patients with nephrolithiasis.
        J Urol. 2014; 192: 1440-1445
        • Bush N.C.
        • Xu L.
        • Brown B.J.
        • et al.
        Hospitalizations for pediatric stone disease in United States, 2002-2007.
        J Urol. 2010; 183: 1151-1156
        • Dwyer M.E.
        • Krambeck A.E.
        • Bergstralh E.J.
        • Milliner D.S.
        • Lieske J.C.
        • Rule A.D.
        Temporal trends in incidence of kidney stones among children: a 25-year population based study.
        J Urol. 2012; 188: 247-252
        • Routh J.C.
        • Graham D.A.
        • Nelson C.P.
        Epidemiological trends in pediatric urolithiasis at United States freestanding pediatric hospitals.
        J Urol. 2010; 184: 1100-1104
        • Sas D.J.
        • Hulsey T.C.
        • Shatat I.F.
        • Orak J.K.
        Increasing incidence of kidney stones in children evaluated in the emergency department.
        J Pediatr. 2010; 157: 132-137
        • Matlaga B.R.
        • Schaeffer A.J.
        • Novak T.E.
        • Trock B.J.
        Epidemiologic insights into pediatric kidney stone disease.
        Urol Res. 2010; 38: 453-457
        • Kirejczyk J.K.
        • Porowski T.
        • Filonowicz R.
        • et al.
        An association between kidney stone composition and urinary metabolic disturbances in children.
        J Pediatr Urol. 2014; 10: 130-135
        • Ogden C.L.
        • Carroll M.D.
        • Kit B.K.
        • Flegal K.M.
        Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010.
        JAMA. 2012; 307: 483-490
        • Vos M.B.
        • Kimmons J.E.
        • Gillespie C.
        • Welsh J.
        • Blanck H.M.
        Dietary fructose consumption among US children and adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
        Medscape J Med. 2008; 10: 160
        • Clark M.A.
        • Fox M.K.
        Nutritional quality of the diets of US public school children and the role of the school meal programs.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109: S44-S56
        • Kant A.K.
        • Graubard B.I.
        Contributors of water intake in US children and adolescents: associations with dietary and meal characteristics–National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2010; 92: 887-896
        • Eisner B.H.
        • Eisenberg M.L.
        • Stoller M.L.
        Influence of body mass index on quantitative 24-hour urine chemistry studies in children with nephrolithiasis.
        J Urol. 2009; 182: 1142-1145
        • Kim S.S.
        • Luan X.
        • Canning D.A.
        • Landis J.R.
        • Keren R.
        Association between body mass index and urolithiasis in children.
        J Urol. 2011; 186: 1734-1739
        • Fulgham P.F.
        • Assimos D.G.
        • Pearle M.S.
        • Preminger G.M.
        Clinical effectiveness protocols for imaging in the management of ureteral calculous disease: AUA technology assessment.
        J Urol. 2013; 189: 1203-1213
        • Goske M.J.
        • Applegate K.E.
        • Boylan J.
        • et al.
        The Image Gently campaign: working together to change practice.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008; 190: 273-274
        • Tasian G.E.
        • Pulido J.E.
        • Keren R.
        • et al.
        Use of and regional variation in initial CT imaging for kidney stones.
        Pediatrics. 2014; 134: 909-915
        • Ferraro P.M.
        • Taylor E.N.
        • Eisner B.H.
        • et al.
        History of kidney stones and the risk of coronary heart disease.
        JAMA. 2013; 310: 408-415
        • Denburg M.R.
        • Leonard M.B.
        • Haynes K.
        • et al.
        Risk of fracture in urolithiasis: a population-based cohort study using the health improvement network.
        Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014; 9: 2133-2140