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Magnesium and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease: Benefits Beyond Cardiovascular Protection?

  • Yusuke Sakaguchi
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Yusuke Sakaguchi, MD, PhD, Department of Comprehensive Kidney Disease Research, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamada-oka, Suita 565-0871, Japan.
    Affiliations
    Department of Comprehensive Kidney Disease Research, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan and Department of Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan
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  • Takayuki Hamano
    Affiliations
    Department of Comprehensive Kidney Disease Research, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan and Department of Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan
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  • Yoshitaka Isaka
    Affiliations
    Department of Comprehensive Kidney Disease Research, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan and Department of Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan
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      Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that magnesium deficiency leads to hypertension, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction, and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Given that cardiovascular disease and CKD share similar risk factors, the low magnesium status may also contribute to CKD progression. In fact, lower serum magnesium levels and lower dietary magnesium intake are associated with an increased risk of incident CKD and progression to end-stage kidney disease. Because these associations are independent of traditional risk factors, other pathways might be involved in the relationship between magnesium deficiency and the risk of CKD progression. Recent evidence has shown that magnesium suppresses phosphate-induced vascular calcification. Magnesium impairs the crystallization of calcium phosphate—more specifically, the maturation of calciprotein particles. Considering that phosphate overload causes kidney damage, magnesium might counteract the phosphate toxicity to the kidney, as in the case of vascular calcification. This hypothesis is supported by an in vitro observation that magnesium alleviates proximal tubular cell injury induced by high phosphate. Potential usefulness of magnesium as a treatment option for phosphate toxicity in CKD should be further investigated by intervention studies.

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