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Cardiorenal Syndrome: An Overview

  • Claudio Ronco
    Affiliations
    International Renal Research Institute, S. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy; Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASST Lariana, S. Anna Hospital, Como, Italy; and Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, L. Parodi - Delfino Hospital, Colleferro, Italy
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  • Antonio Bellasi
    Affiliations
    International Renal Research Institute, S. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy; Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASST Lariana, S. Anna Hospital, Como, Italy; and Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, L. Parodi - Delfino Hospital, Colleferro, Italy
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  • Luca Di Lullo
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to Luca Di Lullo, MD, PhD, Department of Nephrology and Dialysis L. Parodi - Delfino Hospital, Piazza Aldo Moro, 1-00034 Colleferro, Roma, Italy.
    Affiliations
    International Renal Research Institute, S. Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy; Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASST Lariana, S. Anna Hospital, Como, Italy; and Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, L. Parodi - Delfino Hospital, Colleferro, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
      It is well established that a large number of patients with acute decompensated heart failure present with various degrees of heart and kidney dysfunction usually primary disease of heart or kidney often involve dysfunction or injury to the other. The term cardiorenal syndrome increasingly had been used without a consistent or well-accepted definition. To include the vast array of interrelated derangements and to stress the bidirectional nature of heart-kidney interactions, a new classification of the cardiorenal syndrome with 5 subtypes that reflect the pathophysiology, the time frame, and the nature of concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction was proposed. Cardiorenal syndrome can generally be defined as a pathophysiological disorder of the heart and kidneys, in which acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ may induce acute or chronic dysfunction to the other. Although cardiorenal syndrome was usually referred to as acute kidney dysfunction following acute cardiac disease, it is now clearly established that impaired kidney function can have an adverse impact on cardiac function.

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