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Hematological Malignancies and the Kidney

      The incidence of hematologic malignancies is on the rise worldwide. Kidney disease is ubiquitous in patients with hematologic malignancies, encompassing a wide spectrum of disorders involving each kidney compartment, including the vasculature, tubules, interstitium, and glomerulus, and there is significant overlap of kidney involvement with each hematologic malignancy. Vascular disorders include both microvascular and macrovascular damage, via thrombotic microangiopathy, hyperleukocytosis, hyperviscosity, and cryoglobulinemia. The tubulointerstitial compartment may be affected by prerenal azotemia and acute tubular injury, but malignant infiltration, tumor lysis syndrome, extramedullary hematopoiesis, cast nephropathy, granulomatous interstitial nephritis, and lysozymuria should be considered in certain populations. Obstructive uropathy may occur due to nephrolithiasis or retroperitoneal fibrosis. Glomerular disorders, including membranoproliferative, membranous, minimal change, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, can rarely occur. By understanding how each compartment may be affected, care can best be optimized for these patients. In this review, we summarize the widely varied etiologies of kidney diseases stratified by kidney compartment and hematologic malignancy, focusing on demographics, pathology, pathophysiology, mechanism, and outcomes. We conclude with common electrolyte abnormalities associated with hematologic malignancies.

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