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Paraneoplastic Glomerular Diseases

      Paraneoplastic glomerular diseases (GNs) are rare manifestations in patients with underlying hematologic and solid organ malignancies and can occur before or after the detection of cancer. In the absence of established algorithms for investigation and reliable tests, they remain difficult to diagnose. Given the heterogeneity and infrequency of cases, the pathogenesis of most paraneoplastic GNs is poorly understood. Most of our recent understanding of paraneoplastic GNs has emerged from the discovery of target antigens in membranous nephropathy such as thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing protein 7A and neural epidermal growth factor-like 1 protein that appear to be promising in differentiating a primary vs paraneoplastic cause of membranous nephropathy. Treatment of paraneoplastic GNs is usually directed at the underlying malignancy. This review will focus on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of paraneoplastic glomerular processes.

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