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The Effect and Prevalence of Comorbidities in Adolescents With CKD and Obesity

      Adolescent obesity and CKD are both significant public health issues independently. When seen as comorbid conditions, they can cause deleterious health outcomes that put them on the fast track to necessitate dialysis or transplantation. This paper analyzes the effects of various biomarkers and comorbidities seen in the intersection of obesity and CKD in the adolescent population. We illustrate the estimated prevalence of these biomarkers and comorbidities through a review of the literature, available treatment, and obesity-related glomerulopathies. We found significant prevalence of the biomarkers, microalbuminuria (9.42% ± 9.31% and interquartile range [IQR] of 9.5%), hypertension (23.60% ± 22.5% and IQR of 9.5%), low high-density lipoprotein (14.34% ± 5.46% and IQR of 5%), hyperfiltration (3.12% ± 5.16% and IQR of 4%), and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate 4.59 ± 2.75 and IQR of 3%. Identification of prevalent biomarkers and their manifestations can serve to inform clinicians what to look for in daily setting and help elucidate the magnitude of this growing issue. Additionally, pertinent treatment options from pharmacotherapy to bariatric surgery are outlined to provide care providers with the full spectrum of treatment options for obesity in adolescent populations.

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