Kidney Pathology Education for Nephrology Fellows: Past, Present, and Future

      Kidney pathology education is a critical component in training of nephrology fellows, as well as for continuing medical education for practicing nephrologists. Kidney pathology images are included on nephrology fellow board exams, and clinicopathologic correlation of kidney biopsy findings is critical in everyday clinical practice. Nephropathology training is a requirement by the American College of Graduate Medical Education within nephrology fellowship curricula. However, greater than one-third of fellowship program directors believe that nephropathology training for their fellows is not sufficient. During the Coronavirus Disease-19 pandemic, the use of digital learning has become commonplace with virtual conferences (local, national, and international) and online meetings becoming the norm for education. Nephrology has become a leader in free open-access online medical education, both prior to and, to even a greater extent, during the pandemic. Here, we review available resources to nephrology fellows and other learners to supplement nephropathology training, which includes medical blogs, journal clubs, interactive quizzes and games, online conferences, podcasts, and mentorship opportunities. These resources are archived and provide durable content to learners of all stages of training, even beyond the pandemic.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Conant J.L.
        • Gibson P.C.
        • Bunn J.
        • Ambaye A.B.
        Transition to subspecialty Sign-Out at an Academic institution and its Advantages.
        Acad Pathol. 2017; 4
        • Liu Y.J.
        • Kessler M.
        • Zander D.S.
        • Karamchandani D.M.
        Trends in extramural consultation: comparison between subspecialized and general surgical pathology service models.
        Ann Diagn Pathol. 2016; 24: 20-24
        • Ramsay A.D.
        Errors in histopathology reporting: detection and avoidance.
        Histopathology. 1999; 34: 481-490
        • Kirkham N.
        The pathologist in the 21st century--generalist or specialist?.
        J Clin Pathol. 2000; 53: 7-9
        • D'Agati V.D.
        • Mengel M.
        The rise of renal pathology in nephrology: structure illuminates function.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 2013; 61: 1016-1025
        • Education ACfGM
        ACGME program requirements for graduate medical education in nephrology.
        . 2020; 23
        • Mechery V.
        • Hernandez T.
        • Mathew A.T.
        • et al.
        Nephropathology education during nephrology fellowship training in the United States.
        Kidney Int Rep. 2018; 3: 236-241
        • Hilburg R.
        • Patel N.
        • Ambruso S.
        • Biewald M.A.
        • Farouk S.S.
        Medical education during the Coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic: learning from a distance.
        Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2020; 27: 412-417
        • Bansal N.
        • Hall Y.N.
        • Sambandam K.K.
        • Leonberg-Yoo A.K.
        Lessons learned: nephrology training program Adaptation in the time of COVID.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 2021; 78: 9-12
        • Krishnan N.
        A hemodialysis curriculum for nephrology fellows using a blended learning approach: best of both worlds?.
        J Nephrol. 2021; 34: 1697-1700
        • Riaz P.
        • Caskey F.
        • McIsaac M.
        • et al.
        Workforce capacity for the care of patients with kidney failure across world countries and regions.
        BMJ Glob Health. 2021; 6: e004014
        • Osman M.A.
        • Alrukhaimi M.
        • Ashuntantang G.E.
        • et al.
        Global nephrology workforce: gaps and opportunities toward a sustainable kidney care system.
        Kidney Int Suppl (2011). 2018; 8: 52-63
        • Jhaveri K.D.
        • Sparks M.A.
        • Shah H.H.
        • et al.
        Why not nephrology? A survey of US internal medicine subspecialty fellows.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 2013; 61: 540-546
        • Ventola C.L.
        Social media and health care professionals: benefits, risks, and best practices.
        P T. 2014; 39: 491-520
        • Arora Y.
        • Llaneras N.
        • Arora N.
        • Carillo R.
        Social media in physican education.
        Cureus. 2021; 13: e19081
        • Diniz H.
        • Melilli E.
        The rise of #SocialMedia in the Nephrology world.
        Nefrologia (Engl Ed). 2020; 40: 597-607
        • Colbert G.B.
        • Topf J.
        • Jhaveri K.D.
        • et al.
        The social media Revolution in nephrology education.
        Kidney Int Rep. 2018; 3: 519-529
        • Shah S.
        • Topf J.
        Mentorship in the digital age: nephrology social media Collective internship.
        Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2019; 14: 294-296
        • McGinnigle E.
        • Francis R.
        • Warriner D.R.
        • McAloon C.J.
        Journal clubs in the digital age: Twitter for continuing professional development.
        Future Healthc J. 2017; 4: 160-166
        • Currie G.
        • Woznitza N.
        • Bolderston A.
        • et al.
        Twitter journal club in medical Radiation science.
        J Med Imaging Radiat Sci. 2017; 48: 83-89
        • Topf J.M.
        • Sparks M.A.
        • Phelan P.J.
        • et al.
        The Evolution of the journal club: from Osler to Twitter.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 2017; 69: 827-836
        • Stoneman S.
        • Hiremath S.
        Twitter-based journal clubs: Bringing critical Appraisal to the social table.
        Semin Nephrol. 2020; 40: 264-272
        • Breu A.C.
        Why is a Cow? Curiosity, Tweetorials, and the Return to Why.
        N Engl J Med. 2019; 381: 1097-1098
        • Breu A.C.
        From Tweetstorm to Tweetorials: threaded tweets as a tool for medical education and knowledge dissemination.
        Semin Nephrol. 2020; 40: 273-278
        • Farouk S.S.
        • Hilburg R.
        • Sparks M.A.
        Design, dissemination, and assessment of NephSIM: a Mobile-Optimized nephrology teaching tool.
        J Grad Med Educ. 2019; 11: 708-712
        • Topf J.M.
        • Burgner A.
        • Farouk S.
        • Yau T.
        • Sparks M.A.
        NephMadness: Lessons from seven Years on the leading Edge of social media medical education.
        Eur Med J Nephrol. 2019; 7: 48-53
        • Desai T.
        • Sanghani V.
        • Fang X.
        • Christiano C.
        • Ferris M.
        Assessing a nephrology-focused YouTube channel's potential to educate health care providers.
        J Nephrol. 2013; 26: 81-85
        • Kwakyi E.
        • Norouzi S.
        • Robson K.J.
        • Seethapathy H.
        The GlomCon virtual fellowship in glomerular diseases - a Priceless Innovation in online learning.
        Kidney News. 2021; 13: 12-13
        • Nakhleh R.E.
        • Gephardt G.
        • Zarbo R.J.
        Necessity of clinical information in surgical pathology.
        Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1999; 123: 615-619